1930s: General Douglas MacArthur organizes military units for the Pacific region in the Philippines
1941 - 1942
December 7th, 1941: Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor December 8th, 1941: Japanese Attack on Clark Field January 2nd, 1942: Japanese occupy Manila and declare it an open city January 1942: Filipina guerrilla Yay Panlilio broadcasts her first acts of televised resistance via radio station in Manila March 29th, 1942: Philippine Communist and Socialist leaders meet to establish the Hukbalahap (Huks) to fend off the Japanese and all forms of imperialism in the Philippines April 9th, 1942: Bataan Death March May 5th-6th, 1942: Japanese Attack on Corregidor 1942: Wendell Fertig’s Filipino Christian and Moro guerrilla establishment begins taking shape on Mindanao 1942: Young Philippine Military Cadets establish the guerrilla organization, the Hunters ROTC
1944 - 1946
October 20th, 1944: Return of General MacArthur to the island of Leyte October 26th, 1944-December 1944: The U.S. Navy defeat the Japanese in the Battle of Leyte Gulf December 16th, 1944: Liberation of Mindoro and other Mindanao regions by Moro guerrilla units February 4th, 1945: The Retaking of Manila by the Allied Forces and Guerrillas August 15th, 1945: The Japanese Imperial Army officially surrender in Baguio City, Philippines September 2nd, 1945: Official liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese July 4th, 1946: Philippines celebrate their official independence
Philippines' Resistance: The Last Allied Stronghold In The Pacific
The people of the Philippine Islands during the early half of the 20th century experienced various waves of Western imperialism, two wars of attempted secession from Western powers, and two world wars. And yet the Philippine Islands and its people have received only small subheadings in many American textbooks and histories. The wartime experiences from the perspectives of the Philippine people have gone unnoticed and have become overshadowed by the sociopolitical dominating legacy of American figures like General MacArthur, leader and historical symbol of the Pacific Theater during World War II. MacArthur's famous phrase "I came through and shall return" is etched into every facet of World War II historical narratives, textbooks, and monuments that pay tribute to the Allied forces in the retaking of the Pacific from the Japanese. But It is the lesser known people and leaders of the Philippine resistance against the Axis powers whose efforts and contributions allowed for the effective and speedy return of MacArthur's military forces. The Philippine guerrilla resistance consisted of a diverse cast of Filipino men and women, ethnic and indigenous minorities, American and European immigrants and soldiers, young and old, rich and poor, from farmer to politician. The various units of Philippine guerrillas, their tactics, military resources, and vigor to survive and end the Japanese maltreatment of the Philippine peoples paint the Pacific Theater from 1941-1945 as desperate, dark, and bloody for Asian communities throughout East and Southeast Asia. But their resourcefulness, cooperative efforts to collaborate and network with MacArthur across the South Pacific, and massive grassroots liberation movement directly point to the remarkable value that the Philippine Underground Resistance proved to be in aiding the Allies' ability to retake the Pacific.