Hong Kong’s history began in the 19th century as a small coastal settlement of the Qing Dynasty. During this time, there were rising tensions and trade disputes between western imperial powers and the Qing Dynasty. The Treaty of Nanking was signed following the end of the First Opium War on August 29th, 1842, which not only handed the British the island of Hong Kong, but it also demanded that the Qing Dynasty pay the British for war reparations, and lastly, that the Qing demilitarize while allowing the British to stay in China.
The Convention of Peking was signed after the Second Opium War after the British and French troops entered the Forbidden City in Beijing in 1860. They forced Prince Gong from the Qing empire to sign the treaty to lease Kowloon to the British Empire formally on October 24th, 1860.
The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, signed in 1898, officially leased Hong Kong to the United Kingdom for 99 years. The territories in this agreement included Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, the New Territories, and Lantao.
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