Canadian Forces in the Battle of Hong Kong 1941
Hong Kong was under British control till 1941, when the Battle of Hong Kong was waged against Japan. Initially, the British were unconcerned with Japan’s invasion of China and the mistreatment of the Chinese people. A major concern of the British government was the growing number of refugees coming from China. To combat an invasion by Japan, the British government enlisted the help of two other countries under their rule, British India, and Canada.
The Canadian forces were sent in as reinforcements. The Canadian reinforcements were formed from two battalions, the Winnipeg Grenadiers and the Royal Rifles of Canada. The two battalions were recommended by General Chief of Staff, Harry Crear2. On December 7th, the Japanese 38th Division attacked Hong Kong, a mere six hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
With the invasion underway the British, Canadian, and Indian soldiers encountered difficulties. The first issue was the language barrier between the Indian and Canadian soldiers. Another complication was that Japanese soldiers had previous battle experience, while the Canadian soldiers were new to war. Furthermore, the Japanese soldiers were familiar with hill fighting, while the Canadian soldiers were inexperienced. Additionally, the Canadian regiments could not differentiate between the Chinese and Japanese soldiers3.
For two weeks, under the command of Brigadier C. Wallis, Canadian troops attempted to stem Japanese advance. As a result, Canadian troops were short of water and without proper transportation. Even though the British, Canadian and Indian soldiers fought brilliantly, Hong Kong was surrendered to Japan. The remaining British, Canadian, and Indian soldiers were now prisoners of war.
In the aftermath, civilians, and soldiers were subjected to the brutality of the Japanese army. As a result, hundreds of Canadian soldiers died from starvation and illness within POW camps. After the war, a committee was formed in Ottawa to investigate Canada’s involvement in Hong Kong. Commissioner Chief Justice Lyman Duff pardoned the Cabinet, and the Department of National Defense, ignorant of any evidence. An outside analysts concluded that with sufficient training, proper equipment, and staff, Canadian forces would not have been able to defeat the Japanese.
In closing, 554 Canadians died in Hong Kong and in the camps. The soldiers are buried amongst the Sai Wan Bay Memorial, the Stanley Military Cemetery both in Hong Kong. A remaining 107 Canadians, mostly POWs are buried at the British Commonwealth Cemetery in Japan.
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By Derek Pua
Japan’s Declares war on the World (December 7, 1941)
December 7, 1941 is a date that most Americans recognize as the date of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Much has been said and written about the attack on Pearl Harbor and its significance in dragging the United States and its allies into a war that it did not want to be a part of. However, many people often overlook the fact that Pearl Harbor was simply the beginning of a string of preemptive invasions on American, British, and Dutch colonies throughout Southeast Asia. This was in accordance with Japan’s idea of Pan-Asianism, to help “liberate” the peoples of Asia from Western Imperialism.
As most western nations were preoccupied with the deteriorating situation in Europe prior to 1941, many had neglected to maintain their defenses in their oversea colonies. The western governments also made the mistake of underestimating the resolve and spirit of the Imperial Japanese army before 1941, often regarding them as inferior soldiers. This dismissive nature towards a potential Japanese invasion would prove disastrous and gave the Japanese superiority in numbers, war materiel, and morale in these opening stages of the Pacific Campaign of the Second World War. As a result of this, Japan made massive territorial gains in the months following December 7, 1941.
In the chaos which gripped the world in the days following December 1941, simultaneous invasions were carried out by the Japanese in the British holdings of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong; the American-owned Philippines, Wake Island, and Guam; the Dutch East Indies, as well as the Kingdom of Thailand. These opening battles of the Second World War in the Pacific would be the first time the two sides had fought against one another, and it would turn out to be a rude awakening for the inexperienced troops which guarded these colonies. In many of these engagements, hardened veterans of the Imperial Japanese Army were often pitted against poorly trained and poorly armed colonial units of the US and British military forces.
These surprise invasions typically resulted in quick and decisive victories for the Japanese forces, who enjoyed a strong military advantages over their enemies. Many Allied troops in these opening battles found themselves quickly overrun and were held as prisoners of war in concentration camps until the conclusion of the war. These prisoners were often gravely mistreated by their Japanese captors, and often subjected to slave labor, thousands would die in the squalid and brutal conditions of these camps. The Japanese would also conduct an innumerable amount of atrocities towards POWs, both large and small, with the most infamous one being the Bataan Death March.
These newly “liberated” colonies would similarly be subjected to years of harsh and oppressive Japanese rule, these colonies had simply switched a colonial leadership to a new, and much more brutal one. In the spirit of the war, the Japanese military secret police (the Kempeitai) committed many atrocities against civilians in these areas, often kidnapping, jailing, and torturing those who were suspected of being anti-Japanese. Under the new military administrations local cultures and traditions were also at risk, children were forced to take up Japanese names, lessons in schools were taught in Japanese. The Japanese war effort also made scarcity of basic goods like rice a daily occurrence and countless lives were lost due to starvation.
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